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are barred tiger salamanders endangered

Mitchell, P., and E.E. Denoel et al. Bachmann. Possible but unlikely, Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Tiger salamanders have been known to interfere with fish rearing operations in dugouts through competition for food, reducing fish growth (Schock 2001). comm. 1993. 1993). A likely explanation for this pattern is a hybridization event between Arizona and barred tiger salamanders at some point in the distant past (Jones et al. 2001). 1988; Tyler et al. purposes. From. 2011. Some salamanders reach over 300 mm in length, but these are generally neotenic, permanently aquatic forms that fail to transform and retain larval characters including gills and a tail fin in sexually mature adults (Figure 3; Cormie 1975). comm. Storfer, A., and C. White. 1999. The barred tiger salamander typically grows from 15 to 22 cm (5.9 to 8.7 in) but it can grow to 30.5 cm (12.0 in) long at the most and is one of the largest species of salamander in North America. comm. Regionally, populations in the Southern Mountain region of British Columbia are geographically separated by the Rocky Mountains and are disjunct from the rest of the Canadian populations of Western Tiger Salamanders (Figure 1). and C.F. The tiger salamander at Ninette, Manitoba. Is there a continuing decline in the quality of habitat? The only well documented record of road mortalities is adjacent to Banff National Park, near Seebe on the TransCanada Hwy, where 183 Western Tiger Salamander were found dead within a 300 m section of the road, 163 of which occurred over a 4-day period in August (Clevenger et al. American Zoologist 23(1):77-84. Whiteman, H., R. Howard, and K. Whitten. 2001. Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Habitat use of the western toad in north-central Alberta and the influence of scale. There may still exist some unknown populations in oxbows on private land, but the presence of fish (native and introduced) and possibly Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) restricts this possibility (Ashpole pers. There is no formal database in either Saskatchewan or Manitoba that tracks occurrence records for the species, but changes to reporting and tracking are underway in both provinces (Keith pers. 2004. The origin of tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) populations in California, Oregon, and Nevada: introductions or relicts? A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. The remainder of the species’ distribution is relatively continuous and extends to the northern edge of the prairie ecozone up to the beginning of continuous coniferous forest (Cook 1960), covering a wide area in central and southern portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba within the aspen parkland and short grass prairie (Figure 5). 1971. Panel shows a recently metamorphosed juvenile, dorsal view, on a grassy substrate. Canadian Journal of Agriculture 59(2):185-205. The barred tiger salamander or western tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) is a species of mole salamander found from southwestern Canada in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, south through the western United States to Texas and northern Mexico Some populations, Alberta: New ground is broken occasionally (, Aspen plantations are present in Alberta and, Restricted footprint; 27% of Alberta Parkland is in pasture; 46% in crop; Prairie area of Alberta: 42% in crop, 12% in pasture. 1995. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8:371-378. Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, movements and mortality on the trans-Canada highway in southwestern Alberta. American Midland Naturalist 99:101-118. Post-breeding terrestrial movements of Ambystoma tigrinum (Eastern Tiger Salamanders). In the Prairies, there has also been widespread introduction of sport fish throughout the range of the Western Tiger Salamander (Figure 6). MSc. 2001; Brunner et al. [accessed March 15, 2012]. Rosen. The hybridized salamanders also pose a threat to the survival of the rare and tiny endangered Santa Cruz long-toed salamander, whose only known habitat is a watery mating swamp near Watsonville. and unpublished data. 2012. comm. 1958. Molecular Ecology 14(1):213-224. Wind, E. 2005. Introductions of Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) have directly caused local extinction of A. m. stebbinsi in the U.S. (Storfer et al. Terrestrial forms are easily distinguished by the greater size of the Western Tiger Salamander and their distinctive colouration. Spatial heterogeneity and individual variation in diet of an aquatic top predator. 2012. (Sarell pers. Conservation Biology 12(1):94-105. comm. Fitzpatrick, B.M., and H. Shaffer. 2011; Vanderschuit pers. Ferrari, M.C., and D.P. Wright. Andrews, B.D. This report may be cited as follows: COSEWIC. and D.A. Barred tiger salamanders are one of the longest terrestrial salamanders in North America. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Report No. Ashpole, S. pers. COSEWIC Status Report on the Western Tiger Salamander Ambystoma mavortium in Canada - 2012. Davidson, E., M. Parris, J. Collins, J. Longcore, A. Pessier, and J. Brunner. Although they are tolerant of a wide variety of aquatic conditions, large reductions in the length of hydroperiods due to droughts is detrimental and can limit recruitment of young or result in complete reproductive failure (Richardson et al. Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in number of mature individuals? Shortly after mating, the female lays small eggs (< 10 mm in diameter) and attaches them either singly or in small clusters to twigs or stems of emergent plants or to stones or debris about 30 cm or more below the surface of the water (Russell and Bauer 2000; Sarell 2004; Matsudaet al. Bonsalb, P. Hardera, R. Lawforda, R. Aiderc, B.D. Experimental evidence that the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is a potential carrier of chytridiomycosis, an emerging fungal disease of amphibians. Gibbons. In spring, aquatic adults are easily distinguished from larvae based on their large size. These large urban pitfall traps highlight the degree to which salamander habitat has been modified and fragmented. Personal conversation with A. Whiting. Within the Prairie Provinces, there are no reports of changes in the distribution of the species through time, but systematic surveys are lacking. Terrestrial adults have a blotched, barred or reticulate pattern of yellow or off-white on a dark background. 2000) and a similar pattern was observed at another site 200 km to the north (Loredo and Van Vuren 1996). 1996. Journal of Virology 84(6):2636-2647. Froese, J., J. Smits, D. Forsyth, and M. Wickstrom. Some conservationists, for example, may consider hybridization that is favored by natural selection to be an acceptable human-mediated change because it strengthens the original species, says Shaffer. CW69-14/658-2013E-PDF ISBN 978-1-100-22005-5, Common name Western Tiger Salamander - Southern Mountain population. Atrazine increases ranavirus susceptibility in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. The abundance of Western Tiger Salamanders in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba is unknown. Fisher and T.J. Willis. Tiger salamanders in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, as the Prairie / Boreal population, were previously assessed by COSEWIC as Not at Risk, but this assessment included Eastern Tiger Salamanders in Manitoba. Structure and dynamics of an amphibian community: evidence from a 16-year study of a natural pond. A few wetlands occupied by Western Tiger Salamanders occur on Ducks Unlimited property, with additional small wetlands being constructed (Ashpole pers. Other methods include minnow traps and other aquatic funnel traps, which commonly capture larvae and occasionally adult salamanders. Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Regular Technical Report Service No. NSF website: nsf.gov Mark-recapture studies in the US indicate that juveniles are more likely to disperse than are adults (up to 20% of juveniles versus 3-6% of adults moving between wetlands in any given year; Church and Wilbur, unpubl. 2010). Increased water temperatures are probably not a threat because the salamanders are relatively tolerant and occur far south; adult animals can retreat underground. Sexual dimorphism is subtle, with males having a longer tail, which is more laterally compressed than the tail of females, and a swollen vent during the breeding season (Schock 2001). In Saskatchewan and Manitoba, there are no studies or processes to document changes in abundance or trends in tiger salamander populations. comm. 2011. Credit and Larger Version, Hybrid tiger salamander larvae at various stages of development. 2009). Metamorphosis occurs at larval total lengths of 80-150 mm, but varies depending on growing conditions, such as prey availability and larval density. and Prairie / Boreal population in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Effects of pH on embryo tolerance and adult behavior in the tiger salamander, Ambyostoma tigrinum tigrinum. 2004. Ottawa. There are only two protected sites in the Kettle Watershed and none in the Similkameen or at the northern edge of the species’ range around Summerland (BC CDC 2012). 15 pp. The body color is dark brown, almost black, and irregularly marked with yellow to olive colored blotches. Pechmann, and J.W. 2001. Environment-dependent admixture dynamics in a tiger salamander hybrid zone. 2003; Benoy 2008). DND training occurs in areas with salamanders (Suffield, Wainright & others have tiger salamanders); some military exercises create pond habitat. 2006. Since then, knowledge of the number of sites and number of populations has increased; there are now 86 known breeding sites of Western Tiger Salamanders (BC SPI 2011; BC CDC 2012), an increase from 41 sites (formerly listed as 41 locations; Schock 2001). Email correspondence with A. Whiting regarding the use of Malathion in British Columbia. Copeia 2006(4):640-649. The English common name Barred Tiger Salamander for A. mavortium has been replaced recently by Western Tiger Salamander, so avoiding confusion arising from using Barred Tiger Salamander for both the species and one of its subspecies (Crother 2012). Green, J. Bowerman, M.J. Adams, A. Hyatt, and W.H. 2007. Terrestrial habitats of adults and metamorphosed juveniles include grassland, open woodlands such as found in the parkland of the Prairie provinces, and shrub-steppe in British Columbia. 1999. Though recognized as two separate subspecies, there has been no genetic work across the distribution to delineate clear genetic boundaries or barriers to dispersal. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) in the south Okanagan: effects of cattle grazing, range condition and breeding pond characteristics on habitat use and population ecology. The study revealed restricted gene flow among populations from different sites (FST = 0.24) and further isolation by distance and elevation (mean of 21.8 ± 15.2 km SD; range 0.5 to 53 km). Appearance There are three main species of tiger salamander, the eastern tiger salamander, barred tiger salamander and the Arizona tiger salamander along with a couple subspecies. Regester, K.J., K.R. Petranka. 400 pp. Distribution of water bodies that have been stocked with game fish in Alberta since 1920 (blue) and known Western Tiger Salamander records from central and southern Alberta (red). Gray Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma mavortium diaboli; typical colouration of adult salamanders: older salamanders may show regression of dark markings (right) compared to younger individuals (left). 2006; Regester et al. Unpublished data. data) found that the tiger salamander population from White Lake, British Columbia, decreased from 259 adult salamanders in one year to 98 the following year; there was a complete reproductive failure in the 3 subsequent years due to dry conditions. The main disease threat is more likely to be ATV as there are few reports of Bd in Western Tiger Salamanders (Bollinger pers. Organophosphate insecticides (Malathion®) can reduce larval growth, although they may not result in direct mortality (Ramsey et al. It is unclear how many salamanders attempted to cross the road. 1999; Schloegel et al. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Habitat loss continues throughout the range of the Western Tiger Salamander. The greatest new threat to the salamanders in the Okanagan is introduced Bullfrogs, which could invade lakes and wetlands where salamanders occur. Its range is bordered to the north by the mixed-wood and boreal forests in Alberta and Saskatchewan and the boreal plains in Manitoba. [CESCC] Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council. 2011. This distribution is likely the result of post-glacial expansion into Canada from at least two points on either side of the Rocky Mountains. (1998) reported 50 road mortalities in one day near a breeding site. comm. Western Tiger Salamanders can breed from cool subalpine waters to warmer prairie pothole wetlands. Pathogens as a factor limiting the spread of cannibalism in tiger salamanders. Database of Tiger salamander occurrence records. M.Sc. Holomuzki, J., J. Collins, and P. Brunkow. No, Is rescue from outside populations likely? Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Mortality on B.C. Recent concern of global amphibian declines, regional urban development, and increasing occurrences of disease have led to western tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) becoming a species of special concern in the prairie provinces and endangered in British Columbia. 2000; Wissinger et al. Metts, M.E. Figure 4. 2011. Ecohealth 6(3):438-448. Given the importance of agriculture within the species’ range, the risk of chemical contaminants in salamander breeding sites is high. McCaugheym, A. Meinertn, A. Shabbarh, K. Snelgroveo, K. Szetoh, A. Trishchenkol, G. van der Kampb, S. Wangl, L. Wene, E. Wheatonp, C. Wielkij, Y. Yangl, S. Yirdawo, and T. Zhaq. Evidence for multiple recent host species shifts among ranaviurses (Family Iridoviridae). There are no confirmed reports of neoteny from Manitoba, although it is suspected to occur in Ninette Lake (Preston 1982). It was responsible for a mass die-off during the summer of 2011 in Waterton Lake National Park (Johnston pers. Biologist, Minnesota Herpnet.net, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. 2011). The synchronicity of fluctuations may be particularly applicable for the Southern Mountain population, which occupies a relatively small geographic area that is subject to similar weather patterns. Scrimgeour. Davidson. Pearman, P., T. Garner, M. Straub, and U. Greber. Of the subspecies formerly recognized as Tiger Salamanders within Canada, the Eastern Tiger Salamander and the Western Tiger Salamander (which includes the subspecies Gray Tiger Salamander and Blotched Tiger Salamander) are now recognized as distinct species (Crother 2012). 2011. 2010). also found high mortality rates (Crosby, unpubl. Figure 6. 2011; Kendall pers. Miller, B.T., and J.H. Occurrence Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba. 1997. Terrestrial adults have a blotched, barred or reticulate pattern of yellow or off-white on a dark background. Colorado State. Robert Anderson, Federal Biodiversity Information, Ottawa, Ontario, Sara Ashpole, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Lonnie Bilyk, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Christine Bishop, Environment Canada – Recovery Team, British Columbia, Trent Bollinger, Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Doug Collicutt, Nature North – Manitoba Herp Atlas, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Andrew Didiuk, CWS, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Orville Dyer, Ministry of Natural Resource Operations – Recovery Team, Penticton, British Columbia, Nicole Firlotte, Manitoba Consevation Data Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Dave Fraser, BC Ministry of Environment, Victoria, British Columbia, Lisa Hallock, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, Washington, USA, Briar Howes, Parks Canada, Gatineau, Quebec, Jeff Keith, Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre, Regina, Saskatchewan, Randy Mooi, Manitoba Museum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Dean Nernberg, National Defence, Ottawa, Ontario, Jeanette Pepper, Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment, Regina, Saskatchewan, Mike Sarell, Ophiuchus Consulting, Oliver, BC, Danna Schock, Keyano College, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Katrina Stipec, British Columbia Conservation Data Centre, Bill Watkins, Manitoba Department of Conservation, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Lisa Wilkinson, Alberta Fish and Wildlife, Edson, Alberta. 2011. Benjamin Fitzpatrick, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, (865)-974-9734, email: benfitz@utk.edu, Co-Investigators [accessed March 19, 2012]. 1999. Map of the distribution of water bodies that have been stocked with game fish in Alberta since 1920 and known Western Tiger Salamander records from central and southern Alberta. The California Tiger Salamander, the Barred Tiger Salamander and a hybrid of the two. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, USA. Bollinger, V.G. A guide to amphibians and reptiles. 2011. Interactions between fish and salamander larvae. Dyer, O., pers. There is little direct evidence that Bullfrogs have contributed to the decline of tiger salamander populations in British Columbia (Southern Interior Reptile and Amphibian Recovery Team 2008). However, the putative role of Bd in these declines is unclear in light of the prevalence of ATV in the region (Schock et al. Pesticides Officer, Integrated Pest Management Unit, B.C. Some impacts may be positive (digging of ponds) but most are probably negative. 2010. Fish stocking is similarly prevalent in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, but data were not available for detailed mapping. Skin pigmentation change in tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, from Alberta. Conservation Data Centre, Ministry of Environment, Victoria, British Columbia. The Prairie / Boreal population includes two subspecies, Gray and Blotched tiger salamanders. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Important protected sites include South Okanagan Grasslands Provincial Park, White Lake Grasslands Provincial Park, and the Kilpoola property acquired by The Nature Trust of B.C. Forson, D., and A. Storfer. comm. comm. 2012. The tiger salamander is the largest land-dwelling salamander in the world. The distributions of the two subspecies found in Canada (Ambystoma m. diaboli and Ambystoma m. melanostictum) overlap extensively throughout Saskatchewan, and colour variations may exist even within subspecies or regions. These same characteristics also make them common in the pet trade. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks 1998). Declining amphibian populations: the problem of separating human impacts from natural fluctuations. Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals): Not applicable; population size and trends are unknown. Tiger Salamanders have disappeared from several lakes (at least two populations) due to the introduction of fish and numbers have dramatically declined in others (Sarell 1996). B.C. Email and phone correspondence to A. Whiting. Malathion® has also been cleared for use to control the Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii), an introduced pest that lays eggs in ripening fruit (United Agri Products 2010; B.C. Much of the range of the two northern subspecies is recently colonized (< 18,000 years) (Shaffer and McKnight 1996). The Western Tiger Salamander was designated the state amphibian of Colorado in March 2012 (Colorado State 2012). They represent separate postglacial range expansions into Canada and are separated by the Rocky Mountains. Will environmental changes reinforce the impact of global warming on the prairie-forest border of central North America? 1994. Graduate Student, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 52.1-52.4. B.C. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals): Not applicable; inferred decline in population size, but its magnitude is unknown. Jones, T., and J. Collins. Stebbins, R.C. 2011; Vanderschuit pers. comm. Remarkable amphibian biomass and abundance in an isolated wetland: Implications for wetland conservation. 2011; Kendall pers. 2012). Email correspondence to A. Whiting. Parris, M.J., A. Storfer, J.P. Collins, and E.W. Whiteman, H., S. Wissinger, and A. Bohonak. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1–92. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:1337–44. Increased drought and lowering water tables, as well as introduced Bullfrogs, also threaten this species. 1-33 pp. Pathology, isolation, and preliminary molecular characterization of a novel iridovirus from tiger salamanders in Saskatchewan. Schock, D.M., pers. 2011). 2006. 2003. The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. NatureServe (2011) lists A. mavortium (Barred Tiger Salamander) as G5 (secure) globally, N5 (secure) nationally in Canada and in the U.S., S4S5 (apparently secure to secure) in Manitoba, and S2 (imperiled) in British Columbia, where the species is also on the provincial Red List of species at risk. 1983. Ecology 80(6):2102-2116. [accessed September 13, 2013]. Alberta Fisheries Management Information System. The prairies have experienced a number of multi-year droughts, the most recent during 1999-2005 (Khandekar 2004; Bonsal et al. Facultative pedomorphosis, the ability to metamorphose after sexual maturity, may occur during drought periods, but neotenic populations may be lost due to drying of the aquatic habitat. Prairie Alberta: 2-3% of land area affected; negative effects on salamanders through barriers to movement and habitat loss (through draining of wetlands) but might also result in pond creation. Given the restricted distribution of the species and persistent survey efforts, there are unlikely to be many undiscovered populations within the Southern Mountain population. The exact distributions of the subspecies (Shaffer and McKnight 1996) remain unclear, and the distribution map created by Petranka (1998) is likely to change with continued research within contact zones in the east (Routman 1993; LeClere pers. Dunham, J., D. Pilliod, and M. Young. ), and other small bodied, non-native fish into tiger salamanders habitats or nearby larger water bodies, from where they can spread, all pose risks. Brunner, J., D. Schock, and J. Collins. 2006), but individuals are occasionally found over 1000 m from the nearest suitable water body (Sarell and Robertson 1994). Common name Western Tiger Salamander - Prairie / Boreal population. 1994), larger macroinvertebrates (Alperyn 2005; Benoy 2005, 2008), and other salamander larvae including other tiger salamanders. comm. 2011; Haag pers. King, and R.J. Wassersug. Forson, D., and A. Storfer. Zerba, K., and J. Collins. Copeia 2004(3):683-690. Bullfrogs may contribute to site extirpations in the Osoyoos area ( Ashpole, Expanding residential development is occurring around major centres. There is a disjunct distribution in Northern Oregon, Idaho and through Washington into the southern Okanagan region of British Columbia. Clutch sizes have not been recorded for Canadian populations, but in the U.S. they range from a high of 5000 eggs (Bishop 1943; Rose and Armentout 1976) to a low of 100 eggs (Gopurenko et al.

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